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Title
The Gradenbach Observatory - monitoring deep-seated gravitational slope deformation by geodetic, hydrological, and seismological methods
AuthorBrückl, E. ; Brunner, F. K. ; Lang, E. ; Mertl, S. ; Müller, M. ; Stary, U.
Published in
Landslides, 2013, Vol. 10, Issue 6, page 815-829
Published2013
Edition
Published version
LanguageEnglish
Document typeJournal Article
Keywords (EN)Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGD) / GPS / Hydrology / Seismic monitoring / Early warning
URNurn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:3-2351 Persistent Identifier (URN)
DOI10.1007/s10346-013-0417-1 
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 The work is publicly available
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The Gradenbach Observatory - monitoring deep-seated gravitational slope deformation by geodetic, hydrological, and seismological methods [1.92 mb]
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Abstract (English)

The Gradenbach mass movement (GMM) is an example of DGSD (deep-seated gravitational slope deformation) in crystalline rocks of the Eastern Alps (12.85E, 47.00N). The main body of the GMM covers an area of 1.7 km2 and its volume is about 120106 m3. A reconstruction of the deformation history yields a mean displacement of22 m from 1962 to 2011. In 1965/66, 1975, 2001, and 2009 high sliding velocities, exceeding several meters per year, interrupt the quasi-stationary periods of slow movement (0.3 m/year). Since 1999 the displacement of the main body of the GMM has been observed by GPS. Time series of extensometer readings, precipitation, snow cover water equivalent, water discharge, and hydrostatic water level observed in boreholes were re-processed and are presented in this paper. Continuous recording of seismic activity by a seismic monitoring network at the GMM began in the summer of 2006. Deformation has been monitored since 2007 by an embedded strain rosette based on fiber optics technology and a local conventional geodetic deformation network. The velocity of the GMM could be modeled to a large extent by a quantitative relation to hydro-meteorological data. During the phase of high sliding velocity in spring 2009, the seismic activity in the area increased significantly. Several types of seismic events were identified with some of them preceding the acceleration of the main body by about 6 weeks. The potential inherent in the Gradenbach Observatory data to supply early warning and hazard estimation is discussed.