Since combustible wastes usually consist of biogenic (e.g. paper, wood, food waste) and fossil organic matter (plastics), their thermal recovery results in climate neutral and climate relevant CO2 emissions. Moreover, the fraction of biogenic materials in the waste feed is relevant for the amount of renewable energy produced. The latter has to be reported and might be subsidized according to national laws (e.g. based on European directive 2009/28/EG). The present study represents the first comprehensive evaluation of the share of biogenic and fossil materials in the waste feed of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants on a national basis. The Balance Method, which is patented on a European level by TU Wien, was applied to 10 out of 13 Austrian WTE plants (around 2.3 Mio tons of waste corresponding to around 88 % of the overall waste feed in Austrian WTE plants). The method is based on the mathematical reconciliation of the material properties (e.g. mean chemical composition of biogenic and fossil materials) and routinely recorded operating data of WTE plants (e.g. flue gas volume, CO2 and O2-content in the dry flue gas, steam production). The results demonstrate large variations for the share of energy from biogenic sources in the different WTE plants, ranging from 35.7 2.4 % to 61.2 2.7 % (based on annual averages). Additionally, for several WTE plants large temporal variations can be observed based on monthly mean values. Thus, a plant-specific and continuous evaluation of the waste composition in WTE plants (which the Balance Method allows to do at reasonable efforts) can be recommended for a reliable reporting of the renewable share of energy or fossil CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The energy input which stems from fossil and biogenic sources can be estimated to 11,450 120 TJ and 10,730 110 TJ, respectively for the year 2014 (for the 10 WTE plants). In total 1060 24 kt fossil CO2 emissions from the thermal recovery of waste in Austrias WTE plants in 2014 could be determined (estimation for all 13 WTE plants).