Rubber friction on ice is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The friction tests involve three different rubber tread compounds and four ice surfaces exhibiting different roughness characteristics. Tests are carried out at four different ambient air temperatures ranging from 5 to 13C, under three different nominal pressures ranging from 0.15 to 0.45MPa, and at the sliding speed 0.65 m/s. The viscoelastic properties of all the rubber compounds are characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis. The surface topography of all ice surfaces is measured optically. This provides access to standard roughness quantities and to the surface roughness power spectra. As for modeling, we consider two important contributions to rubber friction on ice: (1) a contribution from the viscoelasticity of the rubber activated by ice asperities scratching the rubber surface and (2) an adhesive contribution from shearing the area of real contact between rubber and ice. At first, a macroscopic empirical formula for the friction coefficient is fitted to our test results, yielding a satisfactory correlation. In order to get insight into microscopic features of rubber friction on ice, we also apply the Persson rubber friction and contact mechanics theory. We discuss the role of temperature-dependent plastic smoothing of the ice surfaces and of frictional heating-induced formation of a meltwater film between rubber and ice. The elaborate model exhibits very satisfactory predictive capabilities. The study shows the importance of combining advanced testing and state-of-the-art modeling regarding rubber friction on ice.