One of the most investigated materials in microelectronics is currently the wide bandgap semiconductor silicon carbide. Due to its attractive material properties, silicon carbidebased applications are promising higher energy efficiencies and at the same time higher operating temperatures, frequencies, and voltages, whilst allowing further physical downscaling. However, for a broad utilization, silicon carbide is facing several limitations due to crystal orientation-dependent phenomena as well as poor electrical characteristics. In order to significantly boost the exploitation of silicon carbide as a key substrate material for microelectronic devices, it is crucial to fully comprehend and predict the physical effects of the involved fabrication processing steps. Those predictions are based on modeling and simulation techniques, which are vital for the design and optimization of devices and device fabrication processes. The ultimate goal of simulation-based predictions is to reduce the need for conventional, cost-intensive experimental investigations and thus to reduce development costs, ultimately allowing to sustain the high pace of progress in semiconductor industry. In this work two key challenges in modeling and simulation of silicon carbide device fabrication are investigated and overcome: Thermal oxidation and dopant activation. The first part focuses on the oxidation mechanisms and models, in particular Massouds model, which is calibrated for the four most common crystal orientations. In addition, a novel interpolation method for oxidation growth rates, which enables accurate three-dimensional simulations of arbitrary structures, is presented and evaluated. The second part focuses on the activation of dopants during post-implantation annealing. After a discussion of the physics involved in annealing processes, three activation models are presented. The developed models and their calibrated parameters have been implemented into Silvacos Victory Process simulator which is used to perform numerous studies of various silicon carbide devices to verify the modeling approaches. The results show that it is crucial for device fabrication simulations to be able to accurately predict the geometry and doping profiles of silicon carbide devices. For this reason, this work provides a new understanding of the oxidation and activation mechanisms, promotes the advancement of the silicon carbide semiconductor technology, and, finally, enables to advance technology computer-aided design tools with novel modeling and simulation capabilities for oxidation and post-implantation annealing processes.