In recent years, environmental awareness and sustainable action have become increasingly important in industrialized countries, and consumers are increasingly paying attention to the environmental compatibility of their products. On the one hand, buyers are often willing to pay a higher price for products if they feel that they are sustainable (ecological) and, on the other hand, substitute products that do not meet their environmental and sustainability standards. Enterprises are therefore faced with the challenge of satisfying these (new) customer needs and acting quickly and flexibly. In addition, Industry 4.0 was presented to the public for the first time in 2011 as a future project in the context of the high-tech strategy. According to Acatech - die Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften, the goals of Industry 4.0 are the creation of new forms of intelligent production technology, an optimization of automation technology products and an intelligent design of production, engineering and production environment. However, in its final report „Industrie 4.0 Umsetzungsempfehlungen für das Zukunftsprojekt Industrie 4.0“, the assurance of sustainability and the environment was only partially mentioned. To close this gap, this dissertation explores the connection between Industry 4.0 and environmental management systems. On the one hand, possible effects of Industry 4.0 characteristics and modern technologies on environmental management systems and their requirements are considered, and on the other hand, opportunities for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of environmental management systems by using modern technologies are being researched. In order to answer these questions, an explorative literature search was carried out in the first step. Next, guidelinebased expert interviews took place and the results were compared with those from the literature review. In a further step, the relationship to practice has been established, in which an environmental management concept for the Pilotfabrik was created. Both, literature research and expert interviews strongly indicate that Industry 4.0 and environmental management could be very well combined and that many positive effects on (ecological) sustainability would arise. Furthermore, possibilities for increasing efficiency and effectiveness could be discovered. It could be shown that in times of Industry 4.0, requirements for flexibility, data security, risk assessment, employee training and the identification of the requirements and expectations of interesting parties for environmental management systems could arise. The results were translated into the environmental management concept for the TU Wien Pilotfabrik.