The aim of this study is to capture the effect of brief excitations on the passive vibration dampers and respectively on the base isolation for building structures. Hereby the passive vibration dampers are designed using the optimal parameter as a function of the type of excitation. Additionally, the effect the deviation from the optimal parameter is analyzed. The first chapter is concerned with the theory and the basics of passive vibration dampers as well as base isolation. Herewith the characteristics of the systems as well as the tuned parameters are outlined. In addition, various types of vibration dampers and base isolations are briefly illustrated. In chapter two, the excitation characteristics are introduced in detail. As a short time exposure, a temporal harmonic excitation is defined, which ends after a specific loading duration. Due to the specific excitation, numerical integration methods are used to calculate the solution to the equations of motion. Further, a Fourier transformation is performed for the selected excitation in order to enable a comparison with other loads in frequency domain. In the third and fourth chapter, the effects of short-term force excitation and ground motion on the vibration dampers are investigated, where the results for specific loading durations are listed. Very brief force excitations do not result in a remarkable reduction of the oscillation amplitude, however, the system using dampers shows a very good performance in the decaying behavior. Thereby the comfort for the people and the durability of the structure is increased which confirms the effectiveness of the damper. Very brief ground motions yield slightly higher oscillation amplitudes of the structure using dampers than systems without dampers. The reason for this is the additional inertial force resulting from the mass of the damper. The effectiveness of the vibration damper is shown again in the reduction of the decaying behavior. The effects of short-term support excitations are investigated in chapter 5, but this time for a structure with base isolation, whereby the dynamic loads of the structure are effectively reduced. Also the decaying behavior is positively affected. Adverse are the major total deformations of the structure, which have to be absorbed primarily by the base isolation. Finally, the effects of the vibration dampers are compared to those of the base isolation. The relative displacement of the structure is increasingly reduced by means of the base isolation. However, large total deformations can occur even due to short-term impacts. The effectiveness of the vibration damper does not only arise from the reduction in the total deformation but also from the positive influence on the decaying behavior.