As a contribution to the discussion about what building materials offer the most optimal and environmentally friendly properties for the construction industry, this paper gives an overview of sustainable construction. It illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of certain building materials and structural components by comparing their ecological and mechanical properties. As far as construction materials are concerned, e.g. wood materials have the greatest potential in terms of renewable primary energy demand compared to all other constructions studied. Moreover, due to the high recycling potential, wood has the lowest share of non-renewable primary energy demand, whereas the highest non-renewable primary energy demand is caused by mineral building materials. Concrete also develops correspondingly higher environmental impacts as the compressive strength class increases, whereas the environmental effects of brick formats depend on the type of filling. While concrete structures have the highest rates in the category of global warming potential and ozone depletion potential, mineral structures have the least environmental impact in the categories of ozone generation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Steel and glass, in contrast to the other common building materials, have much higher environmental impacts in all categories, especially in terms of primary energy level and global warming potential. All these studies show that there is no clear preferential construction. Depending on the given conditions, aspects such as location, climatic conditions, availability of renewable energy sources, user behavior or the client's special needs must be taken into account when selecting the building material. There are many aspects in the context of the buildung which have to be considered; Ultimately, building materials are in a functional relationship with each other and with the construction structure. The assessment of the effects of the components on the environment is influenced to a great extent by both the choice of construction material and the choice of insulating material and the type of construction in general. An ideal building material is thus in a well-balanced relation between ecological aspects and structural engineering requirements and should be selected depending on external conditions. By choosing environmentally friendly building materials and joining techniques, at least resource-efficient and sustainable construction can be achieved. Long-term thinking and matching the lifespan of building materials with a certain degree of flexibility of use is essential for ecological construction. As is also shown in the paper, there is no single, international certification system on which to build universal sustainable development. Each rating system and database is based on different criteria and objectives, which are reflected in its rating. Therefore, it is advisable to deal with this problem early on in the planning process and to adapt the objectives of the construction planning accordingly. The goal of the material catalog and component comparison presented in this paper is to get a better overview of this issue.