This master thesis focus on the concept of Industry 4.0 and its potential nexus to the environment. The research questions wants to elaborate what the most prominent positive as well as negative changes concerning the environment that Industry 4.0 entails are. In order to answer this question, the existing pertinent literature has been searched and relevant findings have been inserted into this thesis. In order to not only rely on already existing research, two interviews with renowned experts have been conducted as an additional source of information. When combining all of the findings, the result is that the changes coming with Industry 4.0 will have positive as well as negative effects on the environment. The increase in demand for energy can be named as a potential negative effect on the environment, while the conservation and reduction in use of resources can be stated as a positive effect. Due to the early stage of implementation of Industry 4.0, hardly any hard facts and mostly forecasts and expectations were used as the base for the assumptions made.