Europe is currently experiencing a trend which runs contrary to the privatisation of public services: (re-)municipalisation. Energy and water supply services as well as public transport are among the most prominent sectors for this movement in countries such as France and Germany, but other sectors follow suit. This thesis portrays the history of public services from their beginnings to the present, focusing on the interplay between the private and the public sector. Individual cases of (re-)municipalisation in various European countries offer an overview over international developments of the past 20 years. In Austria, only few public services have been privatised in the past decades, which renders (re-)municipalisation movements in the water and energy sectors, as observed in other countries, impossible. The specific sectors in which (re-)municipalisation has been occurring in Austria are portrayed in nine case studies in this thesis. Three examples from the culture sector, tourism and social services are described in greater detail. They are analysed utilising experts interviews, and their motifs, goals and consequences are described. Finally, the chances and risks of (re-)municipalisations for communities are summarised based on the presented national and international experiences.