The construction of deep excavations in soil usually requires a support of the natural ground using pit walls. The interaction between pit wall and natural ground challenges the prediction of the pit wall behaviour. In the presented thesis, the theoretical background for the calculation and design of pit wall are explained by means of simple (frames and) truss models. The various loads on a pit wall (earth pressure, water pressure, etc.) and different approaches for mechanically modelling the soil reaction are described in detail. Moreover, the fundamentals for modelling a deep excavation with pit walls using the finite element method (FEM) are explained. The typical calculation process is described as well as the theoretical background of widely used material models for soil (Mohr Coulomb and Hardening Soil). Furthermore, the standards and guidelines currently used for the calculation and design of pit walls are outlined. Two selected case studies are used for a review of the various design approaches. The deflection curves as a result of the different calculation methods are compared to inclinometer measurements. Strengths and weaknesses of the calculation methods are compared and discussed based on the mentioned comparisons. Finally, the calculation methods are evaluated and reasons for differences between calculations and moreover between calculations and measurements are revealed.