Every day, people use different methods to ensure they communicate, for example, voice, images, video, and data communication. The need for more efficient forms of communication has continued to rise with the increase in technological advancements. This implies that there is a high demand for large transmissions, which require advanced forms of technology. In this context, light wave technology has been introduced to cater for high data rate requirement and larger bandwidth. When photons and glass fibers combine, they provide a tremendous improvement in the transmission capability compared to the transmission that occurs through electrons and copper wires. As a result, fiber optical transmission systems have gained wide usage as they are currently being deployed in the backbone network. Fiber optics play a fundamental role in transmitting information, and this is expected to continue as technologies continue to advance. In fact, the last three decades have seen enormous strides being made in the field of fiber optics making the notion that it is expected to remain the key communication technology for the future generations. Fiber optics uses one major principle that involves guiding of light by refraction. It is a principle that was first demonstrated in Paris by Jacques Babinet and Daniel Colladon in the 1840s. Since then, fiber optics have been used in numerous applications that involve dentistry, image transmission through tubes, television pioneer among others. On the field of telecommunication, its usage has become possible due to its flexibility and the ability to be bundled as cables. As a result, it has become more advantageous for long distance communications as little attenuation is experienced during the propagation of light through the fiber to the electrical cables. This allows long distance coverage with few repeaters. In the light of this context, the main drive of research for this thesis is to focus on the overview of fiber optics techniques particularly on communication aspects, its overview, and applications.