For the past five decades, the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) has been considered as the cornerstone for trans-boundary water sharing and mutual cooperation between two neighbours otherwise locked in mutual enmity. Increasingly, the threat of climate change, over population, energy needs and the interests of important regional stakeholder neighbours such as China have become part of the equation and the Treaty‘s capacity as a stabiliser of the region is questioned. For this reason, this thesis seeks to identify historical indicators behind the creation of the Treaty as well as to classify India and Pakistan‘s access to water and whether, in the case of a war breaking out between them, each could survive if access to the Indus, as set out under the IWT, is forcibly cut off. Following this segment, this thesis asks whether the increasing inability of the Treaty to keep both riparians from squabbling lies in the aging structure and use of general language, thus the IWT is compared to the 1995 Mekong River Agreement and the Danube River Convention of 1948. The three documents are compared against each other in terms of structure, language and implementing bodies. After this, the IWT is assessed for flaws which are again compared to the 1995 Mekong River Agreement and the Danube River Convention of 1948. The three areas discussed and compared are: dispute resolution, climate change and environmental issues and China. The discussions of research and conclusion both settle on the idea that the IWT, though previously successful is in dire need of a facelift in order to fit future concerns such as further population growth, water and energy demands and climate change.