This dissertation investigates how agriculture in peri-urban areas is shaped by multi-stakeholder networks and European policies. The research focuses on the modalities in which peri-urban landscape around Vienna and Rome is being used, with particular attention on the relationships developed between the landscape, the governance networks and the policies adopted when pursuing active landscape protection. Peri-urban landscape has co-existed with cities from the very start of their creation, when producing food for the urban population. This landscape, identifiable by its interaction between Man and Nature, is a common resource for its local inhabitants. Although it is recognised as important under social, economic and environmental aspects, its identity has rapidly evolved and transformed, now accommodating alongside agricultural land also new functions, often undesired in the urban areas. Food production, a fundamental element of peri-urban areas, is currently struggling to survive due to urban pressure, which increases land prices, and delocalisation of the food production, which slowly eradicates the local market. Yet this landscape is gradually reinventing itself through multi-functional land uses and short food distribution chains. These new models in the peri-urban landscape entail actor constellations, where stakeholders not only develop new skills and roles, but also create new alliances and competences. Whilst these new relations can appear to be more fluid and democratic, they can also raise legitimacy issues. Within the context of peri-urban areas, such situations are particularly evident in the stakeholder coordination of metropolitan areas, where the landscape overarches different municipal boundaries. In such a fragmented governance scenario, once again it is in the peri-urban landscape that experiences where local communities having developed competences and cooperations are encountered. In some cases, these initiatives have been supported by collaborative planning processes that enabled a wider participation in the decision-making process, often moderated by the administration.