Drinking water is the most important foodstuff, life without water is impossible. Drinking water supply and drinking water protection are therefore top priorities. The subject of the present work is the many-sided relationship between spatial planning and drinking water. The focus will be on the role of drinking water supply in zoning, and the contribution of spatial planning to drinking water protection. The work provides clear answers to both questions. Ensuring proper drinking water supply is an important goal of local spatial planning and the necessary prerequisite for the designation as a building zone. Spatial planning contributes to drinking water protection with priority areas. "Groundwater priority areas" in Upper Austria and "Priority areas for drinking water supply" in Lower Austria are examples of this. The results are based on an analysis or interpretation of water management and spatial planning legal sources and planning documents as well as a literature research. Talks and correspondence with experts and practitioners from spatial planning and water management provide the necessary practical reference.