The aim of this research is to illustrate the thermal performance of school buildings in Albania and to study possible improvements. This is done based on the monitoring of indoor environmental conditions and energy simulations of the thermal building performance. Three schools are selected in different parts in Albania (in Tirana, Vlora and Peshkopi), according to the three recognized climate zones of the country. Indoor environmental parameters, such as indoor temperature and relative humidity, are measured in three representative rooms in the school in Tirana and Vlora, for a 10-week observation period. The measured data is compared to European Austrian standards, and Albanian standards for educational buildings, resulting that both schools experience not a comfortable environment, as outlined by the standards. The school building in Peshkopi is a new building still undergoing construction. This building has been analysed based on the energy simulation, in order to determine any progress made towards having better environmental conditions according to the standards. For the schools in Tirana and Vlora a calibrated model is built to identify measures for lowering the heating load of the buildings. Results for the two evaluated schools, based on dynamic thermal simulations, indicate relatively low annual heating demand, although there is no thermal insulation applied. However, measured indoor environmental parameters show temperatures below the comfort ranges. Therefore, both thermal insulation and adapted heating operation have to be considered as improvement measures.