This dissertation attempts at providing an alternative insight into business processes when compared to the current predominant view in the Western culture. It tries to go beyond the idea of just-in-time production to include a broader view on redesigning business processes aimed at increasingly leaner materials flow and, eventually, towards the application of the “pull” type production philosophy. Besides revisiting certain methodologies, I believe it manages to illustrate in a simple yet effective manner the winning aspects and the benefits achieved through the implementation of a strategy according to which production is based on a concrete demand, and is not heavily relying on forecasts. The dissertation also illustrates the example of Johnson Controls and its thorough redesign of production methods, with the implementation of lean production. On the field activities included data collection, feasibility analysis of proposals, practical application of certain tools as is, for example, value stream mapping for the regulation of material flow and inventory reduction. I believe that the topics developed in this dissertation are valuable arguments for the competitiveness of automotive companies. Aiming to show the weight of these arguments, the structure of the dissertation is rather simple, divided into two sections: the first includes the introduction of various aspects of lean production, illustrating certain well-known concepts, whereas the second part describes certain proposed methodologies and case studies. Chapter One introduces the main subject of the dissertation, lean production and its main features, following the theoretical approach of Womack and Jones. Chapter Two offers an illustration of a method for identifying the value flow within a company through its graphic map, its analysis and the outline of a map of a possible future moment, which poses the starting point for the planning of improvement strategies. The focus of Chapter Three is waste and its various types. The different techniques for its elimination, including 5S, manufacturing standards, poka yoke, are illustrated from the very Oriental point of view of continuous improvement (kaizen). Chapter Four deals with the flow analysis and the various systems used in production. Chapter Five and Six talk about Six Sigma. After completing the analysis of the various aspects of lean production, the second part of the dissertation concentrates on case studies and on the conclusions to understand whether “LEAN” and “Six Sigma” together with their merger into “LEAN Six Sigma” provide truly valuable tools for the automotive industry.