The presented thesis deals with the characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of corrugated board with an emphasis on the homogenized stiffness and the buckling behaviour. Furthermore, a technique for the optimisation of corrugated board with respect to the weight per unit of plate area is developed. The optimisation constraints ensure buckling stability in terms of enforcing lower limits for the critical membrane-load in the direction CD concerning local instabilities and for a necessary bending stiffness about the MD axis in the course of the optimization procedure. Thereby, the in-plane direction, which is perpendicular to the generatrix of the flute, is called MD (Machine-Direction), the direction parallel to the generatrix is called CD (Cross-Direction) in the context of corrugated board. The optimisation is carried out by semi-analytical and numerical approaches. The semi-analytical procedure utilises the idea of “primitive” optimization; this approach implies that several collapse modes are reached simultaneously. Furthermore, the liners and the flute are analysed separately with respect to their buckling behaviour. The buckling loads are calculated using equations of the elastic buckling of isotropic plates, which are applied directly to the liners and in a modified version to the flute. The semi-analytical approach uses linear eigenvalue buckling predictions available in the FE code ABAQUS to determine the critical membrane load. To this end, unit cell models with periodic boundary conditions are created. In addition, the unit cell models allow for a prediction of the homogenised stiffness of corrugated board. In the numerical approach the orthotropic behaviour of paper is taken into account, whereas material failure is neglected. The optimisation is successful; the weight per unit of plate area is reduced considerably (more than 15 percent) compared to a specific type of commercial corrugated board while the buckling load and the bending stiffness are preserved. For the optimal configuration, which was found with the numerical approach, the liners and the flute buckle simultaneously when loaded under compression in the CD direction. This can be seen as an a posteriori verification of the assumptions made in the semi-analytical optimisation scheme. Geometrically non-linear simulations are performed for gaining a relationship between the critical buckling load with respect to meso-instabilities (i.e., local buckling) calculated by an eigenvalue buckling prediction and the limit load related to macro-instabilities (i.e., global buckling). In these dynamic and static simulations a finite plate is used, which is constrained between rigid, freely rotating end plates and subjected to a compressive membrane force in the CD direction. The boundary conditions in the MD direction are assumed to be periodic. Load-displacement curves are predicted and the transition from local buckling to global buckling is observed. Due to the localisation of the wavelike buckling mode in a single, central fold, the so-called snap-back phenomenon occurs. The non-linear simulations indicate that the reserve against failure after reaching the buckling membrane-load as calculated by a linear buckling analysis is smaller for the optimized structure as compared to the initial design, provided that the same magnitude for the geometrical imperfections is used. This imperfection sensitivity has to be taken into account in the design of corrugated board for practical use.