Architecture is a cultural product and value, and as such it possesses identity: Over time, answers to the question "What is architecture" developed and changed, and so did the being of architecture. Yet, the built environment is a medium, too, reproducing and shaping identity: A certain way of construction, prevalent in a given collective, might demonstrate either affiliation to a group and separation from another group. Individuals may perceive certain forms and constellations as familiar and appropriate, whereas others may seen alien and inapt. Buildings, staging the space, potentially create new identity-establishing realities. Here, one must ask: "How is architecture?" What are the effects of the built environment on its conjunct society? This thesis aims at depicting the complex entanglements that determine the relation of architecture an identity. Traditions play an important part: They suggest continuity with an evolved past. However, a concept of identity relying solely on historical reminiscences all but suits a society characterized by dynamics, small-scale diversity and global networking. Avant-garde buildings may as well generate catchy, future-oriented images and thereby contribute to an identifiable environment. But they also bear the risk of reading the term "identity" overly superficial. This thesis, therefore, also deals with the in-depth identity-establishing potentials of architecture: Those, which are hidden behind the buildings facades; those, which are to be found in the structures and locations just as in the formation process. The focus of this scientific discussion on architecture and identity will be on the Shchuna Le-Dugma [hebr.: model neighbourhood], a neighbourhood in the southern Israeli city of Beer Sheva. In young Israel, several societal impacts of globalization have been anticipated: People with different backgrounds occupied the very same place by choice or compelled to, theoretically entitled with equal rights. Instead of a comprehensive collective identity, life was shaped by pluri-location and little similarities between people of different origins. The neighbourhood, constructed in the 1960s, offers an opportunity to evaluate the identity-establishing intentions of its planners after a certain period of time. The development of both the buildings and the population in this interval will be of significance, too. A theoretical approach as well as in situ empirical investigations will serve as research methods. The relevant topics are multifaceted: Professional and non-professional perspectives are equally as important as the analysis of planned and spontaneous structures or the influences of an utopian ideology and how it conforms to the lived reality. These findings are meant to provide a basis for an attempt to set general impulses: Which lessons can be drawn from Beer Sheva in planning in and for a manifold society?