Like many former Latin-American colonies, Costa Rica is faced with a quest for its historical, cultural and architectural identity. The rapid process of transformation and the amalgamation with different cultures, the lack of documentation and appreciation of indigenous peoples has gradually led to the loss of its diverse origins and forms of expression in the local culture and architecture over the past five centuries, as well as a generalising or distorted representation. Due to its unique geographic location, its abundance of microclimates, its high density of different indigenous peoples and their isolation, Costa Rica still has a great diversity of vernacular, indigenous buildings today which, for the most part, remains unexplored. Their regional differences, their amalgamation as well as colonisation and migration from many different countries have also resulted in many hybrid forms of those traditional types of construction which still exist alongside each other today. The following Master's dissertation analyses the types of buildings of the eight remaining indigenous peoples of Costa Rica, and the impact of colonialism and modern life on these forms and how they have developed in the past century with regard to their construction typologies, climates and history. It also examines the different construction systems, architectural principles, materiality, climatic strategies and the symbolic translation of their view of the world. Finally, it compares the different building traditions with the characteristics of the social, ecological and cultural environment and their Central American context to draw important conclusions with regard to the relationship between form, architecture, culture and environment as well as its significance and potential for supporting the future development of the local architecture.