Human nutrition is one of the main drivers of agricultural production. Therefore, it induces resource consumption and environmental impacts. In this work the focus is on combining different methods for environmental impact assessment in a novel way to improve the understanding of the impact of animal and plant based food consumption on agricultural production and the environment. Investigations consider specific regional conditions, taking Austria as an example. About 1,900 m2 arable land and 1,700 m2 grassland per capita are needed to supply Austria-s population with the currently required amounts of food. One result of this work shows that 71 % of the nitrogen (N) input and 58 % of the phosphorus (P) input into the agricultural system is used for fodder production, the rest for production of plant based food and products for industrial use. Furthermore, animal husbandry is responsible for 46 % of the total N and 28.5 % of the total P emissions into surface water in Austria (considering all relevant pathways of emission, including waste water management), production of plant based food and of industrial products for about 3 % and 2 %, respectively. With regards to water usage, calculated as water footprint, animal husbandry is responsible for 87 % of the total food production induced water footprint. In addition to the assessment of the actual status possible impacts of dietary chances on nutrient fluxes (N and P) and land use were investigated based on scenario analyses. All scenarios assume a change from a meat based diet to a healthier balanced diet consisting of less animal based products and more plant based food in Austria as suggested by nutritional sciences. The detailed material flow analysis in combination with the nutrient emissions model MONERIS were utilized. The scenarios considerate different farming methods, varying trade options and different use of potentially available agricultural area. Our findings show that overall, a shift to a healthy balanced diet would lead to less land being used for agricultural production (-30 %), less resource consumption (e.g. 20 % to 25 % less P) and lower transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from agriculture into the environment. Total emissions of N and P into water would decrease (between 15 % and 11 % for N and 5 % to 6 % for P) and N concentrations in groundwater would change substantially depending on the intensity of farming assumed by different scenarios.