The central paradigm in the emerging field of metamaterials is that the properties of a material are in certain cases governed rather by the well-ordered spatial arrangement of its constituent particles than by the properties of those particles themselves. Since such highly ordered patterns can act as waveguides for acoustic, elastic, or electromagnetic waves, they can give rise to novel material properties, opening up new avenues in materials design. The central problem of how to produce the required ordered particle arrangements, e.g., via self-assembly, has received significant attention both from the experimental and theoretical sides. In theoretical studies, the interactions between particles are modeled via potential functions, whose shape and range have a profound impact on the formed structures. These potentials are often short-ranged, i.e., they are characterized by a rapid decay with distance. In this thesis, we focus on systems featuring long-range interactions, where particles interact over significantly larger distances than the mean inter-particle separation. Typical examples for such potentials are charged or multipolar interactions. In our approach, we first determine the ordered structures formed by the particles at vanishing temperature by minimizing the relevant thermodynamic potential. We observe a surprising plethora of different structural archetypes as well as novel phase transition scenarios. Then, we investigate the stability of these structures at low temperatures using Monte Carlo simulations.