The courtyard house is one of the oldest residential forms in history of mankind. In the regions of North Africa and the Near East, there is an especially strong spreading of this versatile residential type. This work concerns with the residential courtyard houses and its particularly spatial structure, spatial drafts and architectural design ideas from indigenous traditional houses of these regions. Beside geographical, climatic and cultural influences, which formed the courtyard house in the end, its extended genesis will be shown. In the main chapter about the residential courtyard house, follow discourses about the function of the courtyard house as private area, existent basic types, the specific regional method of construction and erection, the available spatial structures and their current use as well as the exceptionally spatial drafts. Furthermore the complex flexibility of this building type and the significant domestic life within the courtyard house is discussed. A comparison of selected real courtyard house floor plans deriving from both regions, should exemplarily explain the found spatial structures and spatial drafts. Afterwards it is described, how the private courtyard house as autonomous building unit can join to dense residential quarters, which again grow to characteristic spatial structures of a typically oriental town. Finally, the circumstances of the retreat of traditional courtyard houses from modern towns should be briefly named, because they presently question the future continuance of the residential courtyard house.