This Master's thesis compares the energy balance of 1 m2 of exterior walls constructed out of three different materials. Based on a 50-year life cycle, the primary energy consumption of a concrete structure (insulated double wall), a wooden structure (light-frame construction) and a brick stone wall (construction of vertical coring bricks) is, respectively, determined. The thesis analyzes the cradle-to-grave life cycle focusing on supply, processing, transport and the end-of-life phase including demolition and recovery if possible. The input data is collected in collaboration with construction companies and complemented with a literature research. Using appropriate databases a primary energy balance considering renewable and non-renewable energy is elaborated. The results show that the concrete structure exhibits the lowest overall energy consumption, while the wooden structure displays the highest level of renewable energy. For all three structures the largest part of primary energy is consumed during the material processing phase, especially if exterior wall constructions contain cementitious base materials. The energy level consumed during transport, on the other hand, is quite low for all types.