The present thesis deals with the topic of elementary architecture and traditional indigenous structures for residential purposes. Elementary dwelling forms are defined by minimal production costs while maximizing utility. The adaption to individual, local environmental conditions can be seen as the biggest challenge for residents. The adaption was essential for the survival of the indigenous population. Within this context benefits, advantages and disadvantages of each dwelling are critically discussed. Based on the insight, the possible use of traditional techniques nowadays and in the future will be discussed. This consideration is not reduced to the usage of remaining constructions of individual regional traditions, but has to be seen in the context of usage in modern architecture. In this context, the following questions are discussed: How effective could people design dwellings by using the most primitive materials and traditional processing techniques and what are the advantages and disadvantages of these systems? Which construction methods are still usable for today`s applications and on the other hand which design principles are no longer applicable and why not? What can you learn from the principles and lessons of the past, what can be transferred to today`s technical understanding and what are fields of application in modern architecture?