The effects on landowners and other affected groups caused by major infrastructure projects, such as roads of higher ranks or high speed lanes, pose challenges for the involved actors. Effects like surface exchange, - transfer, expropriation, or negative externalities appear on the agenda. The Land Consolidation Act of the Federal Republic of Germany is the basis of various methods of land consolidation.
Following this law, various methods on how to consolidate and create rural areas have been developed, for example §86 the so called "simplified land consolidation" and §87 "corporate land consolidation.
However such procedures often implicate conflicts of interests as one of the main problems in spatial planning:
· high consternation among those affected, caused by expropriation · reluctance in selling or giving up land Additionally new infrastructural routing with long proceeding times cause not only enormous costs for everyone involved, it has also potential for conflict. However, land consolidation projects which endure many years are not an exception. Similar practices can be found in Austrian rural consolidation or reshaping processes. Despite the structural change to a service society, especially Lower Austria, but also expansive other parts of Austria are still characterized by rural production.
The last centuries also brought a rapid change in processing methods (cultivation, croprotation,...) and therefore problems with the shape of agricultural land. In Austria, just like in Bavaria, land consolidation and land allocation are used to meet the needs of modern rural areas and deal with user conflicts. The analysis of the actors which are involved in the planning process is shown in the conclusion and a comparison of different types of proceedings in both countries is given.