The world used an unbelievable 2.079 trillion1 liters of liquid fuels in 2007 for transportation. Biofuels contribute only a very small amount yet. Biomass is by far the biggest contributor to bioenergy and offers a big potential for biofuels. A big potential is seen in 2nd generation biofuels - especially for those from lignocellulosic sources - because they do not compete for food resources. Biofuels had a pretty good start and looked like the one big alternative in substituting fossil fuels. Technical modifications for vehicles were quite low, energy density high, but then the discussion about food or fuel rose and biofuels were made responsible for rising commodity prices. At the moment everybody is talking about electric mobility and electric vehicles. And for the public it looks as if electric vehicles are the only valid alternative in individual transportation. From the author's point of view biofuels can make a strong contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases if resources are used properly and any source that is already used by the food industry is not considered. The special focus of this work is on agricultural and wood-based residues and wastes that form the vast majority of currently used biomass. Their long term potential is mainly dependent on the future developments in agricultural and forestry production. These residues and wastes have one very big advantage: they are not used by the food industry, or they are not used at all. But how big is the volume of these "free" or not yet used resources? This paper finds an answer to the question if there is a serious potential for bioenergy based resources for 2nd generation biofuels taking into consideration that there is no competition with resources for food production or other existing production streams? The 10 countries with the biggest wood resources (Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, United States, China, Australia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Peru and India) and the EU27 are examined in detail focusing on residues from agriculture and forestry to figure out existing unused biomass potential for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic material (2nd generation biofuels). Based on literature and online research information is condensed and calculations on unused biomass potentials in terms of volume and energy content are carried out. The residue potential of 2,300 million tons of unused agricultural residues and 365 million tons of forestry residues together with 66 million tons of woody waste from municipal solid waste streams would theoretically lead to 589 billion liters of lignocellulosic Bioethanol. This amount would substitute more than 28% of the worldwide liquid fuel demand in 2007. The available potential from municipal solid waste and landfill gas is hard to predict, as no qualified data was available, but it also has to be kept in mind, as it will be considerable. Residues and waste material can provide a significant amount of resources for the production of 2nd generation biofuels without any competition with food industries and without any competition with industries that already use some of these residues and wastes. But 2nd generation biofuels still have some challenges to solve before becoming a success story.