Renewable Energy from Small Hydro Power Plants is in general a very environmental-friendly way of producing electrical energy. At the moment the existing SHPPs in Romania stem mainly from the last decade of the communist regime and were built and set into operation in the years 1983-1989. In the last two decades these power plants have not seen much maintenance and some of them were abandoned completely. The objective of this work is to show different aspects of refurbishing these SHPPs, which are on one hand of old fashioned and not reliable technique, but use on the other hand quite interesting locations from a hydrological point of view. The author has practical experience, as he is deeply involved in a large refurbishment program of SHPPs in Romania. Literature study and discussions with other owners of SHPPs in Romania are additional sources of information. At the end of 2008 European leaders responded unequivocally to the global energy and climate crisis by agreeing to the Renewable Energy Directive. The decision, hailed by the renewable industry and many environmental friendly organizations as a historic moment, will enable renewable energy technology to be developed throughout Europe. One major task is to bring the well developed Austrian SHPP know how to Romania and to adapt it to the local situation. For the first time, each member state has a legally binding renewable target for 2020 along with a clear trajectory to follow. By June 2010 also Romania - like all the other countries - will draw up a National Action Plan detailing the ways in which they are to meet the 2020 target, which will then be submitted to the Commission for assessment. Romania has to increase its share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption from a value of 17,8% in 2005 to a targeted 24% in 2020, according to Annex I in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the council 2008/0016 - On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC). This can be done with a substantial contribution from refurbishing the existing SHPPs, where a doubling of production is a reachable goal. Austria in comparison has to increase this value from 23,3% in 2005 to 34% in 2020, where also SHPPs are one of the main supporting columns to reach this goal. Especially in Romania there is still a huge potential for renewable energies waiting for identification and construction. The Small Hydro Power Plants, per definition and per Romanian "Renewable Energy Law" supported hydro power plants smaller than 10 MW rated power, have certainly some tradition originating especially from the last years of Ceausescu era. There is a huge potential available in refurbishing the existing SHPPs and in planning and building additional projects in the whole territory of Romania. The refurbishment of SHPPs in Romania contributes to face the current economic crisis, as SHPP renovation provides jobs especially in rural areas while reducing electricity costs, energy dependence, energy imports and fuel price risks. The major conclusion from the analysis is that the successful refurbishment of the existing SHPPs is only possible with a deep understanding of all juridical, technical and economical aspects. If all works are done in a structured way, profitability is achievable in taking the old existing equipment as basis. On only few locations completely new systems have to be installed. How positively the refurbishment works will influence the energy production in the next years and if the set production targets can be reached, is a topic for close investigation and monitoring in the next years.