Gravimetric and elemental concentration analayses have been carried out on airborne particulate matter sampled in an urban residential area.The data and derived information were generated from daily sampling of PM10, PM2.5 and coarse particle fractions for a period of five months, including both winter and summer seasons.The air filter samples were collected with the Gent sampler and the EU sampler LVS3.
Whereas summer airborne particle mass concentrations were always below the PM10 limit value of 50ug/m3, winter mass concentrations had over twenty exceedances. More information was obtained through determination of elemental concentrations by PIXE and EDXRF analysis. The PIXE procudure was optimized using proton energy of 2 MeV, with 24 um Mylar foil between sample and detector, and proton beam of 7 mm wide. The EDXRF method was also optimized through careful selection of secondary targets and evaluation models. The elements identified and quantified with PIXE and EDXRF analysis of the air filter samples were: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca. Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Validation of the quantitative methods with the standard air filter SRM2783 gave reasonable agreement for most elements analyzed. Correleation tests on selected elemnts enabled identification of some of the sources of pollution as emanating from dust particles, vehicular combustion, and combustion from fossil fuels used for heating during winter. The elemental concentration analysis gave additional information than was possible simply with gravimetric analysis alone. A muliti-orifice impactor sampler "DEKATI" was also modified to enable direct deposition of particulates on a reflector for subsequent analysis by TXRF.