The thesis demonstrates the hypothesis, that the error characteristics of the navigation tool determine the strategy of navigation. We introduce the navigation with map and compass, and the technique of orienteering in a natural environment. We also describe the technically augmented navigation using a GPS receiver with a screen map, and a GNSS receiver with a screen map which is hypothetically functioning everywhere. We decompose the strategy and the execution of each type of navigation into primitive actions in the framework of the sense-plan-act architecture. We present the possible errors of navigation.
We numerically simulate the navigation with the vector-type cognitive approach. We take an orienteering map, we choose the origin and the destination, and we draw several optimum paths between both. Then we cognitively define the waypoints and homogene segments along each of the optimum paths. The optimum path condition requires, that the (fictive) navigator has to travel the distance in the shortest time. We empirically and experientally define the frictions of locomotion, and the risks of navigation for each of the three tools, and compute the cost and time for each optimum path, and each tool. From the results we formally demonstrate, that the time of travel functionally depends on cost and pace, where the pace depends on the physical condition of the navigator, and the cost depends on distances, frictions and risks. The distance is influenced by the position of origin, destination and waypoints. The frictions depend on the environment, however the risks depend on the strategy, where the strategy depends on the tool. Finally, we conclude that the tool provides affordances for the emerging errors.