Landscape planning and management is usually considered in cases where development, and thus the pressure on open spaces and natural resources, increases. This pressure increases further under extremes of conditions such as overpopulation, high urban density, hard socio-economic conditions, and military occupation (armed conflict).
Most of these conditions distinguish what are widely known as the 'developing countries'. The Gaza Strip is a place where all these conditions apply at once, where only since 1994 has the first start been made in developing a national planning system. Unexpected scenarios and rapid changes have happened and planning efforts were almost negated due to the Israeli military operations and their socio-economic consequences. At the same time, landscape planning and management and related planning sectors in the Gaza Strip faced internal problems and challenges that contributed to the absence of real implementation of most of the plans produced. This study shows that such extremes of conflict and socio-economic conditions have not yet got the appropriate attention they deserve in the process of landscape planning and management both on the theoretical level as well as on the empirical level. As a result of this research study, a group of recommendations for landscape planning and management in the Gaza Strip are made, together with further recommendations for similar cases of the developing countries. Moreover, the study also makes proposals for factors to be taken into account in the general theoretical outline of landscape planning and management.