The main focus of this thesis lies in the identification of regulatory criteria of distributed generation and the resulting economics for renewable electricity generation (especially wind and biomass energy) in Denmark and Austria. The historical deployment of the Danish electricity system shows the main arguments of how to integrate distributed generation into the grids effectively. Furthermore, the present responsibilities of the different actors within the Danish electricity market are presented. Economics of wind energy converters and small-scale CHP plants are discussed in detail illustrating the regulatory background. Hence, the resulting grid connection costs of distributed generators are pointed out and the necessary balancing expenses caused by a reliable system are considered, in order to discuss "best-practice" regulatory criteria. From this point of view, the organizational structures within the Danish as well as the Austrian electricity systems are discussed in detail, analyzing the currently used integration strategies of distributed generators. The calculated Austrian grid connection costs amount to approximately 300 percent compared to Denmark whereas the balancing expenses are four times higher than Danish ones.
Conclusions point out that the above mentioned results are mainly caused by the implemented "Shallow Cost" grid connection approach in Denmark, which is more favorable for distributed generators. Since a main part of the grid connection costs of renewable electricity generators are socialized among the Danish population, more incentives are offered to new investors of these plants.
Furthermore the smaller balancing costs are a consequence of the smaller forecast error and the bigger balancing market, as Denmark is part of the Nordic power market. Shorter generation forecast periods require a smaller demand on balancing power, decreasing its price.
Finally, since Danish households are obliged to be connected to the local District Heating Systems and consequential the achieved heat prices dropped, the penetration of small-scale CHP plants increased enormously.
Although Austria cannot copy the Danish system it is a good model in order to integrate distributed generation, especially in the balancing and grid connection matters. Essential directives should be reconsidered in Austria in order to promote the development of distributed generation.