Nowadays the application of physical analytic methods in the material science (synthesis, characterisation and development of new materials) is essential. In this work four of these techniques, which are able to investigate surfaces and interfaces as well as the bulk material: secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy; are applied on four different research areas: 1) Powder metallurgy (PM): PM is a high sophisticated technique, which enables the production of precision components with complex geometry and excellent surface quality. One important step in the part production is sintering. The enhancement of the sintering process can be done using some definite sintering additives e.g. phosphorus and boron. Here the study of the influence, pointing to the complete sintering process and to the material properties of the obtained parts, using these two sintering additives (activator), is made by means of 2D and 3D SIMS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 2) Tribology on the aerospace bearing materials: The formation and the effect of the reaction layer on two commonly used aerospace bearing steels (AMS 6491 M50 and AMS 5898), after two tribological tests (ball - on -disk BOD and rolling contact fatigue RCF) is investigated with SEM as well as with 2D and depth profiling SIMS. 3) Gettering effects and defect engineering: Gettering layers are produced by means of high energy ion implantation and subsequently annealing. These gettering layers (defects) are able to collect unwanted impurities and thus to reduce their concentration in the active area of the wafers, what could be essential for the further processing e.g.
production of electronic devices. Copper is implanted from the backside of the wafer and thus is used as extrinsic impurity to be gettered inside these layers. Copper SIMS depth profiles show the distribution of the formed gettering layers. These defects produced by means of ion implantation can also be helpful for ion beam synthesis of silicon - on - insulator (SOI) structures. The defects can be produced prior or simultaneously with the effectively oxygen implantation. The defects and the depth profiles of all implanted species are studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), AES and SIMS depth profiles. 4) SiGe heterostructures: The aim of this part is the comparison and correspondence of SIMS with low energy Rutherford Backscattering (RBS).
The advantages and the limits of these two methods will be shown.
Additionally it will be demonstrated how the mathematical simulations (RBS spectra simulation) and mathematical models and fittings (improvement of SIMS depth resolution) are able to help and to solve some problems occurring due to the limits of the analytical methods.