This master thesis examines the challenges Bosnia and Herzegovina faces whilst transitioning its energy sector, implementing cleaner technology systems and utilizing its renewable energy potential, all within the wider framework of EU accession. Extensive research is focused on evaluating the potential outcomes of mitigation measures, cleaner energy solutions and processes fostering renewable energy utilization projects. In order to understand the impact of these, Bosnia and Herzegovina´s energy market intricacies will be contextualized in great detailed. Special focus is placed on Bosnia and Herzegovina´s international cooperation. Due to its goal of EU accession, Bosnia and Herzegovina must adjust its energy policy in line with that of the EU. This paper will explain why, as a post-war country with a transitioning energy sector, Bosnia and Herzegovina faces plenty of difficulties in doing so. Afterward, this thesis will give a detailed explanation of barriers to change and mitigation options that will comparatively give indication of the potential future outcomes of various energy generation choices that can be made in the short, medium, and long run. This is followed with a discussion on possibilities of emerging new renewable energy systems, their potential, and problems that Bosnia and Herzegovina might face in utilizing them. Connections will be made throughout this paper between international obligations, political and administrative problems within the state, use of new technologies, and other mitigation measures. The paper concludes that steps toward reforming the energy sector that take into account use of renewable energy sources, clean technologies, and mitigation measures make economic, social and political sense for Bosnia and Herzegovina, and can greatly improve the situation in the state on all levels if implemented strategically and in the best interest of the greater population.