In this thesis, we have studied the (110) surface of strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO). SrTiO3 is a complex oxide of the perovskite class. It exhibits a wide range of interesting properties. For example, it is well known for its photocatalytic activity, and it is widely used as a substrate for the growth of complex oxides. We have investigated the preparation and properties of different STO(110) sur- face reconstructions. The samples have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), low-energy- and high-energy electron diffraction (LEED and RHEED), and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS). Experiments were conducted in different UHV chambers. Well-defined STO(110) surfaces with specific surface reconstructions were prepared by sputtering and annealing. Central to surface preparation is the phase- diagram established by Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. B, 83, 155453 (2011)]. It describes the dependence of the surface reconstructions on the the near-surface stoichiometry. This enables us to switch between surface reconstruction on STO(110) by deposition of Ti or Sr metal and subsequent annealing. Furthermore, it allows to associate changes in the PLD-grown thin film surface reconstruction with the stoichiometry of the deposited film. We present the structure model of the SrTiO3(110)-(4x1) surface reconstruction and characterize it by means of STM, LEED, RHEED, and XAS. We further discuss the transition (induced by reactive Ti growth) from (nx1) (n=4-6) to (2xm) (m=4,5) reconstructions on the STO(110) surface. We characterize the (2x5) surface structure by highly-resolved STM, LEED, and XAS. XAS reveals a change from tetrahedral coordination of Ti in the (4x1) reconstruction, to a surface where Ti is in octahedral coordination for the (2x5) structure. We show the structure model of the (2x5) reconstruction and present details about its preparation. The second part of this thesis discusses the surface chemistry of the (4x1) reconstruction. We have studied the interaction of water with this surface, and investigated how its properties change upon adsorption of Ni metal, and NiOx clusters. The results showed that the SrTiO3(110)-(4x1) surface is inert towards the adsorption of water. Water adsorbs molecularly only at low temperatures, while it adsorbs dissociatively on the reduced surface at surface oxygen vacancies. We identified surface hydroxyls, oxygen vacancies, and molecularly adsorbed water on this surface by STM. Ni metal adsorbs on the (4x1) surface at room temperature as single adatoms at specific sites in the surface reconstruction unit cell. Mild annealing leads to clustering of the atoms. We characterized the adsorption of Ni adatoms by means of STM, XPS, and UPS. The system NiOx-SrTiO3 has recently been found to be pressure). We systematically prepared similar pristine surfaces and deposited sub-monolayer amounts under different conditions, and were able to identify the influence of the deposition parameters on the island density and the surface morphology. We verified the correlation between RHEED intensity oscillations and ideal 2D layer- by-layer growth. By directly relating variations in the RHEED intensity with the actual density of steps on the surface, as determined by STM, we were able to refine the step density model. This model explains such variations in the RHEED specular spot intensity by variations of the step density on the surface. The results indicate that, in addition to the steps introduced by the islands circumference, also the interfaces between inherently different reconstruction coexisting on the surface have to be taken into account. Finally, we present growth studies of up to 39 ML thick homoepitaxial films. We tested the influence of the deposition parameters on the morphology and structure of the film surface. We characterized the island growth on different STO(110) surfaces and concluded that the pristine surface structure has a strong influence on the morphology of the resulting thin film. In addition, we observed that the surface structure changes during deposition. Using the calibrated phase-diagram of STO(110), we were able to determine the stoichiometry of the PLD-grown film with a high accuracy.