Given that especially rural areas in developing countries still largely remain underpowered today, this thesis attempts to investigate the aspects that are most vital for a successful rural electrification strategy in developing countries. With its large natural resources and its enormous potential in terms of renewable energies to be exploited for the matter of modern energy generation, sub-Saharan Africa is in the focus of attention. Based on the assumption that rural electrification rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain extremely low today due to a lack of appropriate strategies in most countries, the purpose of this master thesis is to identify the aspects that are at the root of the problem and that impede a significant increase in access rates in rural areas. This will be done by contrasting the current knowledge about the most favorable policy measures and factors for a successful rural electrification strategy to the strategy of Senegal, a country that has shown its commitment to work towards these ends but has failed so far to achieve satisfactory outcomes in terms of access rates. The first section provides the reader with an overview on rural electrification in developing countries and presents the state of rural electrification in sub-Saharan Africa. It elaborates on the region's energy uses patterns, choices of renewable energy technologies for the rural context and electricity distribution, covering the actors, delivery models and price reduction measures. It then highlights the various constraining factors to rural electrification. The following section looks into Senegal's rural electrification strategy. After giving a country overview, it discusses several national policy documents that reflect the country-s serious commitment to provide its rural population with sustainable energy in the years to come. This section further covers Senegal's electricity sector and the use and potential of renewable energies. The present work reveals that the assumption that rural electrification rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain extremely low today due to a lack of appropriate strategies in most countries needs to be revised. For the case of Senegal, it proves to be difficult to extract the major flaws in the strategy. This is mainly due to the fact that the success of a rural electrification strategy depends on a great number of factors that extend beyond institutional, economic, policy-related, environmental and technological borders.